What Is Scoliosis? What Are Its Types?Scoliosis is a problem that involves the lateral deviation of the spine, with an alteration in the alignment of the vertebrae of the spine. In this way, individuals suffering from scoliosis, instead of having the natural curvatures of the spine, have large deviations in the form of an “S” or a “C”. Furthermore, based on where the deviation occurs, we can distinguish between Lumbar Scoliosis (when it is observed in the lower part of the back), dorsal scoliosis (if it occurs in the upper region of the spine) or dorsolumbar scoliosis (when between the middle and lower back).
- Congenital scoliosis: caused by spinal malformations from birth.
- Neuromuscular scoliosis: due to primary neurological or muscular disorders, which cause loss of control of the trunk due to weakness or paralysis.
- Syndromic scoliosis: Appearance in certain diseases.
- Scoliosis due to other causes: such as the appearance of the deformity with tumors or infection.
- Idiopathic scoliosis: The term “idiopathic” means that the cause of this disorder is unknown (in the vast majority of cases).
- Infantile idiopathic scoliosis: Before 3 years. Many resolve spontaneously. With relative frequency thoracic curves to the left.
- Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis: Between 3 and 10 years. Most are thoracic curves to the right.
- Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: It is the most common type. It occurs between 10 years and skeletal maturity and in most cases in women. Greater progression the lower the age.
- Scoliosis in adults: or degenerative
What Are the Causes of This Pathology?To date, the causes of the most frequent type of scoliosis among the population are not known. What has been determined is that the hereditary component has a notable influence, with a greater probability of suffering from this disease if someone in our family environment has suffered from it. On the other hand, some types of scoliosis have occurred due to birth defects, spinal injuries or infections, and neuromuscular conditions. It’s worth noting that there are several risk factors for the development of this disease. Here we find age, since during puberty there are more cases of scoliosis and sex, as women are much more prone to its condition style=”font-size: 16px;”>.
What Is the Treatment of Scoliosis?The Treatment of Scoliosis will depend on the degree and age of the patient. If the scoliosis is in the initial phase and the deviation is slight, the treatment of the scoliosis consists of physiotherapy exercises to strengthen the muscles and correct the posture of the body and the spine. If the curvature is between 20 and 40 degrees, treatment will consist of wearing a back brace and physical therapy. In the case of scoliosis in children, it may be advisable to use a Kallabis Headgear such as the Orliman Headgear. The purpose of the Kallabis Headgear is to maintain the curvature so that it does not get worse as you grow. The advantages offered by this harness are that it is made of soft and easily adaptable material and allows walking and standing. So the child does not notice the discomfort of wearing a corset. It is especially recommended for infant scoliosis. In this case, to correct the wrong attitude with the child, the physiotherapist must start performing physiotherapy exercises for scoliosis treatment in children, if it appears at a very early age, can worsen the prognosis, because growth tends to increase the inclination of the spine. That is why it is important to start treatment for scoliosis as soon as possible.
When Is Scoliosis Surgery the Best Treatment?In the case of a very marked deviation, the solution is Scoliosis Surgery. This corrects the deviation and stabilizes the spine in the correct anatomical posture. After surgery, the physiotherapist should begin physical therapy exercises to restore mobility and improve muscle strength. Correcting the Curvature of the Spine and trying to prevent it from going further is essential to avoid other physical and psychological problems. Scoliosis can cause pain in other joints such as the hips and legs, as well as decreased lung capacity and chronic fatigue. In addition, the deformity of the back and the appearance of a hump often cause psychological problems in children. Treating it in time is essential to avoid them.
Watch Video for Scoliosis Treatment with Surgery
Grade 1 Scoliosis TreatmentGrade 1 scoliosis is visually almost imperceptible, it is characterized by a slight curvature. In a reclining state, the spine is in the correct shape. Symptoms of pathology are considered:
- Fatigue after long walks.
- Asymmetry, for example, the location of the shoulders at different heights.
- Physical Culture.
- standing on all fours, bend and arch your back, “cat” and “camel” pose;
- lie on your back, put your feet on the floor, raise and lower your pelvis, shifting your spine vertically;
- in the same position, turn the body and legs in different directions.
Grade 2 Scoliosis TreatmentAt pathology grade 2, the angle of inclination of the spine increases to 25 degrees. Patients develop pain in the back, and the asymmetry of the shoulder blades becomes visible from the outside. If you don’t start treatment for the disease at this stage, it can progress to a more serious stage 3. Treatment methods for grade 2 scoliosis include:
- respiratory gymnastics;
- physiotherapy treatments;
- SFT, which aims to strengthen the back muscles and correct the position of the spine;
- Wearing a custom brace for scoliosis treatment and posture adjustment;
- Professional massage and manual exposure to eliminate muscle imbalance.
- Leaning against the wall, give your back the correct position and try to walk smoothly, without changing the angle of inclination;
- Perform squats with your arms extended forward and a flat back;
- Maintain balance by balancing on one leg;
- Perform exercises such as, “scissors”, “cat” and different types of twisting.
Grade 3 Scoliosis TreatmentIn grade 3 scoliosis, the curvature is noticeable from the side (it can reach 80 degrees) and requires a serious approach to treatment. Such a pathology rarely develops in children, since their spine is flexible enough to take the wrong position. The main task of therapy is to stop the progression of the pathology and correct the position of the spine. Scoliosis treatment methods include:
- use of flags;
- treatment procedures;
- electrical muscle stimulation;
- surgical treatment of scoliosis;
- Yoga classes.
Grade 4 Scoliosis TreatmentWhen a degree of curvature of 4 is diagnosed, the spine deviates to an angle of more than 80 degrees. This is noticeable not only on radiography, but also with the naked eye. In the absence of treatment for such scoliosis in children, their growth stops. In both children and adults can occur:
- Hernial formations.
- Joint pain leading to limited mobility.
Treatment methodologyThe treatments must have an initial, main and final part, monitoring correct posture and including breathing exercises. Modeling Scoliosis Exercises
- Starting position to perform a posture correction (straight trunk position); in prone position, place sandbag in segments rotated ventrally (left side of pelvis, right side of chest, left shoulder)
- Contact breathing on the concavities in the dorsal part of the thorax, combined with massage: Inspire- defeat- exhale- hold the position- keep breathing gently.
- DP in correction position (unrotated the trunk), move the right arm and left leg away from the body – hold, turn the left arm out and lift it, stretch the scapula towards the spine, turn the right leg out and lift it slightly
- Relaxation of the muscles: the spine in the Mohammedan position with knees at 90°; The technician’s hands are placed parallel to the vertebrae and help the patient to stretch with a gentle push, accentuating the concave side of the arm.
- On your knees, sitting on your heels, body leaning forward, active correction of incorrect posture by concentric work on the convexity and eccentric work on the concavity
- As above, the technician fixes the pelvis, lateral flexion towards the convex side, the position of the arms indifferently.
- Hanging from the front of the trellis, with the feet slightly apart on the lower bar, with a symmetrical or asymmetrical grip, a global stretch of the spine is produced
- Same as above, but with an asymmetrical grip, depending on the scoliosis, flexes the hips and knees and separates the legs, brings the convex side closer and accentuates the left side.
- Hanging from the concave side, the right leg moves down and back and the arm up and down in external rotation, forming 2 crossed diagonals
- Sitting on the floor with legs crossed, next to 2 pikes, the weight of the body is transferred to the concave side, with the help of the pikes, stretching in the cranial direction, producing spinal rotation.
- 4-point position in front of the trellis, the arm of the concave side is stretched in the cranial direction, can support the hand; the leg on the convex side is stretched caudally, the toe can contact the ground.
Routines before Scoliosis Treatment Exercises:If you have the green light and need to start getting your scoliosis pain under control, there are many exercises that are designed to help you achieve that goal: Leg and Arm Extensions: Creates strength to your arms and legs. Repeat three sets of 10, three times a week. Back Extension: This creates strength to your lower and upper back with the help of a stability ball and a balancing act that you hold for a count of five and repeated for a set of 10, three times a week. Triceps Raise: Strengthens the triceps with some minor weight lifting and repeated for three sets of 10. Bent-Over Raise: Strengthens abdominals and lower back with the aid of some light hand weights. You should do this exercise at least three times a week. Standing Raise: This exercise for scoliosis is similar to the flexion raise, only this exercise you can do while standing targets and strengthens the arms and shoulders. Upright Row: This exercise also strengthens the arms and shoulders, and you can also do it while standing and using light hand weights. One-Arm Row: This exercise works it all, abdominal, lower and upper back, shoulders and upper arms. You May Be Interested In: Pain in The Back of The Knee
Large checklist of Exercises for Scoliosis TreatmentFollowing is a large checklist of Exercises for Scoliosis Treatment, many of which you can do at home. We will explore these exercises in greater deal with future articles, but this will give you a good idea of what you can do to strengthen and stretch your back.
Abdominal Muscle ExercisesBelieve it or not, working your abdominal muscles can help you to alleviate back pain. This area is connected to the pelvic and stomach muscles that help support the back:
- Abdominal tightening
- Backwards bend
- Bridge building
- Elbow raise
- Leg extender
- Lower abdominal exercise
- Partial curl-ups
Back Stretching ExercisesThere are a variety of exercises you can do to stretch the back. You can do many of these exercises from a lying position, but you should use a floor mat when you are doing floor exercises:
- Back and side stretch
- Knee cross-stretch
- Knee to chest
- Pelvic tilt
- Shoulder, back and hip relaxer
- Triceps, shoulder and waist stretch
- Upper body stretch
Back Strengthening ExercisesExercises that strengthen the back and the stomach can also diminish the pain from scoliosis. Of course, you do not want to continue any exercises that cause you any discomfort:
- Arm reach
- The cat and the crow
- Cat stretch
- Cow stretch
- The plank
- Pelvic lift
- Wall slide
Upper Back ExerciseAlthough many people tend to feel pain in the lower back, it is important to work the entire back:
- Arm raise
- Chin drop
- Shoulder blade squeeze
- Upper back and arm stretch
- Cat stretch
- Cow stretch
- Head to knee stretch
- Leg raise sideways
- Arm circles
- Back warm-up
- Hip roll
- Leg lift
- Shoulder warm-up
Scoliosis Treatment FAQs
Can Scoliosis Cause Me Pain?
What is the Cobb Angle?
What is Risser’s Sign?It is a skeletal maturity measurement in which the stage of ossification of the iliac crest is measured using an X-ray. The values range from 0 when the ossifying nucleus of the iliac crest is not detected, with a greater risk of scoliosis formation and aggravation, to 5 when the iliac crest is completely ossified, with a decreased risk of advancement.
What Sports Can I do to Improve Scoliosis?
If you would like to go to a consultation with Dr. Kyrillos to be able to explain your symptoms and, thus, be able to receive the most appropriate diagnosis for your spinal problem, do not hesitate to contact us through the Facebook. I do take care of your spine!References
- The changing pattern of scoliosis treatment due to effective screening.
- Acute neurological complications in the treatment of scoliosis. A report of the Scoliosis Research Society.
- The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) according to present evidence. A systematic review.
- Results of operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adults.